There have been many significant developments in the area of isotopic analysis since this recommendation was first published in the 1996.
Many of these have shown the power of internal referencing, which has often allowed the detection limit at which adulterations can be positively identified to be significantly reduced.
Some examples of these “newer” approaches are:
- internal carbon isotope ratios of individual sugars
- relative carbon isotope ratios seen for the sugars, acids, individual acids, pulp and pectin
- positional carbon isotope ratios of malic and ascorbic acids
- internal deuterium and carbon isotope ratios of citric acid
- internal oxygen isotope ratios of juice water and ethanol derived from the sugars
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